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bombardement dresde phosphore


[73], On 15 February, the 1st Bombardment Division's primary target—the Böhlen synthetic oil plant near Leipzig—was obscured by clouds, so its groups diverted to their secondary target, Dresden. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Selon Gert Bürgel[41], les témoignages entendus et les matériaux de travail de la commission sont inaccessibles, couverts par le secret et ne peuvent donc pas être l'objet d'étude critique. Bombardement - 650 000 bombes - 7000 tonnes - De la Grande-Bretagne et Amérique Faits du bombardement - Destruction d'un tiers de la ville - Feux intense - Morts de nombre inconnu innocent - estimé 50 000 à 305 000 morts - Température de 1800°F - rue qui fond à cause du chaleur Freeman Dyson, a British (and later American) physicist who had worked as a young man with RAF Bomber Command from July 1943 to the end of the war,[165] wrote in later years: "For many years I had intended to write a book on the bombing. Amazon.in - Buy Dresde 1945 book online at best prices in india on Amazon.in. [126], The reconstruction of the surrounding Neumarkt buildings continues to this day. Le compte de 200 000 morts avancé par l'écrivain négationniste David Irving était appuyé sur un rapport de police (Tagesbefehl -TB- Nr. 84 relations. ... ever since the deliberate mass bombing of civilians in the second world war, and as a direct response to it, the international community has outlawed the practice. archive DRESDE OU LA MÉMOIRE BLESSÉE En deux jours, les 14 et 15 février 1945, RAF et Américains ont lâché 800 000 bombes sur la capitale saxonne. [157] This provoked an outrage in the German parliament and triggered responses from the media. The Wehrmacht's main command post in the Taschenbergpalais, 19 military hospitals and a number of less significant military facilities were also destroyed. [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. (, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 16:07. [141] Two-thirds of the remaining population reportedly fled the city after the raids.[142]. [60] The Pathfinders therefore decided to expand the target, dropping flares on either side of the firestorm, including the Hauptbahnhof, the main train station, and the Großer Garten, a large park, both of which had escaped damage during the first raid. Le This led to the city councils decision to rebuild a large amount of baroque buildings in accordance to historical designs, but with modern buildings in between them. [20] A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report, German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. [23][27], Churchill was not satisfied with this answer and on 26 January pressed Sinclair for a plan of operations: "I asked [last night] whether Berlin, and no doubt other large cities in east Germany, should not now be considered especially attractive targets ... Pray report to me tomorrow what is going to be done". [75], Of 796 British bombers who participated in the raid, six were lost, three of those hit by bombs dropped by aircraft flying over them. [63] The mix of bombs for the Dresden raid was about 40% incendiaries—much closer to the RAF city-busting mix than the USAAF usually used in precision bombardment. [61] The German sirens sounded again at 01:05, but as there was practically no electricity, these were small hand-held sirens that were heard within only a block. "The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany" (SOA), HMSO (1961) vol 3 pp. British historian Antony Beevor wrote that Dresden was considered relatively safe, having been spared previous RAF night attacks, and that at the time of the raids there were up to 300,000 refugees in the area seeking sanctuary from the advancing Red Army from the Eastern Front. The inquiry concluded that by the presence of active German military units nearby, and the presence of fighters and anti-aircraft within an effective range, Dresden qualified as "defended". [89], Between 100,000 and 200,000 refugees[90] fleeing westward from advancing Soviet forces were in the city at the time of the bombing. On possède des observations de telles tempêtes de feu pour le bombardement de Coventry par l'Allemagne, celui de Hambourg[36] (opération Gomorrhe), et pour les bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki. On the morning of 14 February 431 United States Army Air Force bombers of the Eighth Air Force's 1st Bombardment Division were scheduled to bomb Dresden near midday, and the 3rd Bombardment Division were to follow to bomb Chemnitz, while the 2nd Bombardment Division would bomb a synthetic oil plant in Magdeburg. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. Lire en ligne: Archives nationales du Royaume Uni. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". En lire plus. "The Bombing of Dresden," in. [106][107][108] On 28 March, in a memo sent by telegram to General Ismay for the British Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff, he wrote: It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed. Les commémorations des bombardements de 1945 l’ont une nouvelle fois prouvé. One of the gifts they made to the project was an eight-metre high orb and cross made in London by goldsmiths Gant MacDonald, using medieval nails recovered from the ruins of the roof of Coventry Cathedral, and crafted in part by Alan Smith, the son of a pilot who took part in the raid. Sir Arthur Harris affirma que la décision avait été prise à un échelon très supérieur à lui[39]. I cannot forget these terrible details. À l'arrière-plan, la manufacture de tabac Yenidze. [91] This was largely achievable because most of the dead succumbed to suffocation; in only four places were recovered remains so badly burned that it was impossible to ascertain the number of victims. Although the city had been sealed off by the Wehrmacht to prevent looting, Rudolph was granted a special permit to enter and carry out his work, as he would be during the Russian occupation as well. [158] In 2010, several demonstrations by organizations opposing the far-right blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations. The bombings are a central theme in the 2006 German TV production, The devastation of Dresden was recorded in the woodcuts of Wilhelm Rudolph, an artist born in the city who resided there until his death in 1982, and was 55 at the time of the bombing. We saw terrible things: cremated adults shrunk to the size of small children, pieces of arms and legs, dead people, whole families burnt to death, burning people ran to and fro, burnt coaches filled with civilian refugees, dead rescuers and soldiers, many were calling and looking for their children and families, and fire everywhere, everywhere fire, and all the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. 3,0 sur 5 étoiles bon film de guerre. But to do so was always repugnant and now that the Germans are beaten anyway we can properly abstain from proceeding with these attacks. Why did we burn its people? Ici, je dirai seulement que l'attaque de Dresde était à l'époque considérée comme une nécessité militaire par des personnes beaucoup plus importantes que moi." It is now none of these things.[112]. [53][54], The Lancasters crossed into French airspace near the Somme, then into Germany just north of Cologne. In the special introduction to the 1976 Franklin Library edition of the novel, he wrote: The Dresden atrocity, tremendously expensive and meticulously planned, was so meaningless, finally, that only one person on the entire planet got any benefit from it. It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. [29][30], On 31 January, Bottomley sent Portal a message saying a heavy attack on Dresden and other cities "will cause great confusion in civilian evacuation from the east and hamper movement of reinforcements from other fronts". ("German perpetrators are no victims!") Sont accessibles principalement[42] le rapport final (Abschlussbericht) sur Internet; le projet Mathildenstrasse, étude d'une rue-témoin du centre-ville[43], et l'ouvrage publié par l'Institut Hannah Arendt de Dresde. By now, the thousands of fires from the burning city could be seen more than 60 miles (97 km) away on the ground, and 500 miles (800 km) away in the air, with smoke rising to 15,000 feet (4,600 m). Lien en allemand : Outre le rapport final de 96 pages, sont aussi disponibles, toujours en allemand : He writes that the bombing was the first time the public in Allied countries seriously questioned the military actions used to defeat the Germans.[102]. "This should be a sobering thought. Je prends le train en cours, avant tte chose, bonjour à tt le monde. [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. På DBA finder du altid et godt tilbud på både nye og brugte varer til salg Allied arguments centre around the existence of a local air defence system and additional ground defences the Germans were constructing in anticipation of Soviet advances. [a] Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March aimed at the city's railway marshalling yard and one smaller raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas. "[25] Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, AOCinC Bomber Command, nicknamed "Bomber" Harris in the British press, and known as an ardent supporter of area bombing,[26] was asked for his view, and proposed a simultaneous attack on Chemnitz, Leipzig and Dresden. An RAF memo issued to airmen on the night of the attack gave some reasoning for the raid: Dresden, the seventh largest city in Germany and not much smaller than Manchester is also the largest unbombed builtup area the enemy has got. Warning! [127][128], The bombing of Dresden remains controversial and is subject to an ongoing debate by historians and scholars regarding the moral and military justifications surrounding the event. Les témoignages font aussi dramatiquement état de la présence d'une tempête de feu (Feuersturm) sur plusieurs kilomètres carrés, confirmée par les analyses[32], avec des vents de la force d'une tornade[33] qui aspiraient vers le feu les victimes qui tentaient de se retenir[34],[35]. D'autres considèrent que tous les moyens devaient être utilisés pour mettre fin le plus rapidement à la guerre et en définitive, épargner des vies humaines. 5 Group, acting as the Pathfinders, or flare force, whose job it was to find Dresden and drop magnesium parachute flares, known to the Germans as "Christmas trees", to light up the area for the bombers. As one of the directors of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, formed late in the war by the American Office of Strategic Services to assess the results of the aerial bombardments of Nazi Germany, he wrote: "The incredible cruelty of the attack on Dresden when the war had already been won—and the death of children, women, and civilians—that was extremely weighty and of no avail". A British charity, the Dresden Trust, was formed in 1993 to raise funds in response to the call for help, raising £600,000 from 2,000 people and 100 companies and trusts in Britain. [42] Colonel Harold E. Cook, a US POW held in the Friedrichstadt marshaling yard the night before the attacks, later said that "I saw with my own eyes that Dresden was an armed camp: thousands of German troops, tanks and artillery and miles of freight cars loaded with supplies supporting and transporting German logistics towards the east to meet the Russians".[43]. According to Dr. Gregory Stanton, lawyer and president of Genocide Watch: ... every human being having the capacity for both good and evil. Dresde fut commis délibérément, car Dresde est une crime contre des civils, pour faire définitivement plier les nazis. I'm a historian. Sixty bombed Prague, dropping 153 tons of bombs, while others bombed Brux and Pilsen. On the following day, only a single US bomber was shot down, as the large escort force was able to prevent Luftwaffe day fighters from disrupting the attack.[76]. ... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort. [36][44], In the raid, major industrial areas in the suburbs, which stretched for miles, were not targeted. Four major raids were carried out in the span of 10 days, of which the most notable, on 27–28 July, created a devastating firestorm effect similar to Dresden's, killing at least 45,000 people. [131] As such, "grossly inflated"[5] casualty figures have been promulgated over the years, many based on a figure of over 200,000 deaths quoted in a forged version of the casualty report, Tagesbefehl No. Traditional British chivalry and the use of minimum force in war was to become a mockery and the outrages perpetrated by the bombers will be remembered a thousand years hence".[148]. [64] Taylor compares this 40% mix with the raid on Berlin on 3 February, where the ratio was 10% incendiaries. [143] The "hutted camps" mentioned in the report as military targets were also not military but were camps for refugees. At 22:03 the Local Air Raid Leadership issued the first definitive warning: "Warning! 47) considéré actuellement comme falsifié[22],[23],[24], une copie[25] de l'original ayant été retrouvée à Dresde par Götz Bergander.

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2019 – Année nouvelle
2019 – Année nouvelle